Added 1 year ago
Like any worksite, each industry has their own language. Whether you are looking to join a roofing company, or just want to familiarize yourself with some common terms you may have heard your roofing specialists refer to, here is a glossary of common roofing terms:
Absorption: the ability of a material to accept within its body quantities of gases or liquid, such as moisture.
Accelerated Weathering: the process in which materials are exposed to a controlled environment where various exposures such as heat, water, condensation, or light are altered to magnify their effects, thereby accelerating the weathering process. The material’s physical properties are measured after this process and compared to the original properties of the unexposed material, or to the properties of the material that has been exposed to natural weathering.
Adhere: to cause two surfaces to be held together by adhesion, typically with asphalt or roofing cements in built-up roofing and with contact cements in some single-ply membranes.
Aggregate: rock, stone, crushed stone, crushed slag, water-worn gravel or marble chips used for surfacing and/or ballasting a roof system.
Aging: the effect on materials that are exposed to an environment for an interval of time.
Ambient Temperature: the temperature of the air; air temperature.
Application Rate: the quantity (mass, volume, or thickness) of material applied per unit area.
Apron Flashing: a term used for a flashing located at the juncture of the top of the sloped roof and a vertical wall or steeper-sloped roof.
Ballast: an anchoring material, such as aggregate, or precast concrete pavers, which employ the force of gravity to hold (or assist in holding) single-ply roof membranes in place.
Base Flashing (membrane base flashing): strips of roof membrane material used to close-off and/or seal a roof at the roof-to-vertical intersections, such as at a roof-to-wall juncture. Membrane base flashing covers the edge of the field membrane.
Base Ply: the lowermost ply of roofing in a roof membrane or roof system.
Blister: an enclosed pocket of air, which may be mixed with water or solvent vapor, trapped between impermeable layers of felt or membrane, or between the membrane and substrate.
Brooming: an action carried out to facilitate embedment of a ply of roofing material into hot bitumen by using a broom, squeegee, or special implement to smooth out the ply and ensure contact with the bitumen or adhesive under the ply.
Buckle: an upward, elongated tenting displacement of a roof membrane frequently occurring over insulation or deck joints. A buckle may be an indication of movement within the roof assembly.
Building Code: published regulations and ordinances established by a recognized agency prescribing design loads, procedures, and construction details for structures. Usually applying to designated jurisdictions (city, county, state, etc.). Building codes control design, construction, and quality of materials, use and occupancy, location and maintenance of buildings and structures within the area for which the code has been adopted.
Button Punch: a process of indenting two or more thicknesses of metal that are pressed against each other to prevent slippage between the metal.
Butyl: rubber-like material produced by copolymerizing isobutylene with a small amount of isoprene. Butyl may be manufactured in sheets, or blended with other elastomeric materials to make sealants and adhesives.
Butyl Coating: an elastomeric coating system derived from polymerized isobutylene. Butyl coatings are char-acterized by low water vapor permeability.
Butyl Rubber: a synthetic elastomer based on isobutylene and a minor amount of isoprene. It is vulcanizable and features low permeability to gases and water vapor.
Butyl Tape: a sealant tape sometimes used between metal roof panel seams and end laps; also used to seal other types of sheet metal joints, and in various sealant applications.
Cap Flashing: usually composed of metal, used to cover or shield the upper edges of the membrane base flashing, wall flashing, or primary flashing. (See Flashing and Coping.)
Cap Sheet: a granule-surface coated sheet used as the top ply of some built-up or modified bitumen roof membranes and/or flashing.
Caulking: (1) the physical process of sealing a joint or juncture; (2) sealing and making weather-tight the joints, seams, or voids between adjacent units by filling with a sealant.
Cladding: a material used as the exterior wall enclosure of a building.
Closure Strip: a metal or resilient strip, such as neoprene foam, used to close openings created by joining metal panels or sheets and flashings.
Coated Base Sheet: a felt that has previously been saturated (filled or impregnated) with asphalt and later coated with harder, more viscous asphalt, which greatly increases its impermeability to moisture.
Coated Fabric: fabrics that have been impregnated and/or coated with a plastic-like material in the form of a solution, dispersion hot-melt, or powder. The term also applies to materials resulting from the application of a preformed film to a fabric by means of calendering.
Coating: a layer of material spread over a surface for protection or decoration. Coatings for SPF are generally liquids, semi-liquids, or mastics; spray, roller, or brush applied; and cured to an elastomeric consistency.
Cohesion: the degree of internal bonding of one substance to itself.
Combustible: capable of burning.
Compatible Materials: two or more substances that can be mixed, blended, or attached without separating, reacting, or affecting the materials adversely.
Contact Cements: adhesives used to adhere or bond various roofing components. These adhesives adhere mated components immediately on contact of surfaces to which the adhesive has been applied.
Contamination: the process of making a material or surface unclean or unsuited for its intended purpose, usually by the addition or attachment of undesirable foreign substances.
Counterflashing: formed metal sheeting secured on or into a wall, curb, pipe, rooftop unit, or other surface, to cover and protect the upper edge of the membrane base flashing or underlying metal flashing and associated fasteners from exposure to the weather.
Coverage: the surface area covered by a specific quantity of a particular material.
Cricket: an elevated roof substrate or structure, constructed to divert water around a chimney, curb, away from a wall, expansion joint, or other projection/penetration.
Curb: a raised member used to support roof penetrations, such as skylights, mechanical equipment, hatches, etc. above the level of the roof surface; (2) a raised roof perimeter relatively low in height.
Cutoff: a permanent detail designed to seal and prevent lateral water movement in an insulation system, and used to isolate sections of a roofing system. (Note: A cutoff is different from a tie-off, which may be a temporary or permanent seal.) (See Tie-Off.)
Deck: a structural component of the roof of a building. The deck must be capable of safely supporting the design dead and live loads, including the weight of the roof systems, and the additional live loads required by the governing building codes. Decks are either non-combustible (e.g., corrugated metal, concrete, or gypsum) or combustible (e.g., wood plank or plywood), and provide the substrate to which the roofing or waterproofing system is applied.
Double Graveling: the process of applying two layers or flood coats of bitumen and aggregate to a built-up roof. Loose aggregate should be swept from the first application prior to the second coating of bitumen and aggregate. Approximately 50% of the second aggregate application will remain adhered in the bitumen flood coat unless physically removed.
Downspout: a conduit used to carry runoff water from a scupper, conductor head, or gutter of a building to a lower roof level, or to the ground or storm water runoff system.
Drain: an outlet or other device used to collect and direct the flow of runoff water from a roof area.
Drip Edge: a metal flashing, or other overhanging component, with an outward projecting lower edge, intended to control the direction of dripping water and help protect underlying building components. A drip edge also can be used to break the continuity of contact between the roof perimeter and wall components to help prevent capillary action.
EPDM: Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer: a popular single ply roofing system.
Expansion Joint: a structural separation between two building elements that allows free movement between the elements without damage to the roofing or waterproofing system.
Factory Seam: a splice/seam made by the manufacturer during the assembly of sections of materials into large sheets.
Fading: any lightening of initial color.
Fasteners: any of a wide variety of mechanical securement devices and assemblies, including nails, screws, cleats, clips, and bolts, which may be used to secure various components of a roof assembly.
Felt: a flexible sheet manufactured by the interlocking of fibers through a combination of mechanical work, moisture, and heat. Roofing felts may be manufactured principally from wood pulp and vegetable fibers (organic felts), asbestos fibers (asbestos felts), glass fibers (fiberglass felts or ply sheet), or polyester fibers.
Fiberglass Insulation: blanket or rigid board insulation, composed of glass fibers bound together with a binder, faced or unfaced, used to insulate roofs and walls. Rigid boards usually have an asphalt and kraft paper facer.
Field of the Roof: the central or main portion of a roof, excluding the perimeter and flashing.
Flaking: detachment of a uniform layer of a coating or surface material, usually related to internal movement, lack of adhesion, or passage of moisture.
Flange: the projecting edge of a rigid or semi-rigid component, such as a metal edge flashing flange, skylight flange, flashing boot, structural member, etc.
Flashing: components used to weatherproof or seal the roof system edges at perimeters, penetrations, walls, expansion joints, valley, drains, and other places where the roof covering is interrupted or terminated. For example, membrane base flashing covers the edge of the field membrane, and cap flashings or counter flashings shield the upper edges of the base flashing.
Flood (Pour) Coat: the surfacing layer of bitumen into which surfacing aggregate is embedded on an aggregate-surfaced built-up roof. A flood coat is generally thicker and heavier than a glaze coat, and is applied at approximately 45-60 pounds per square (2-3 kilograms per meter).
Flood Test: the procedure where a controlled amount of water is temporarily retained over a horizontal surface to determine the effectiveness of the waterproofing.
Granule: (also referred to as Mineral or Ceramic Granule) opaque, natural, or synthetically colored aggregate commonly used to surface cap sheets, shingles, and other granule-surfaced roof coverings.
Gravel: aggregate resulting from the natural erosion of rock.
Gravel Stop: a low profile upward-projecting metal edge flashing with a flange along the roof side, usually formed from sheet or extruded metal. Installed along the perimeter of a roof to provide a continuous finished edge for roofing material. Acts as a bitumen-stop during mop application of hot bitumen along a perimeter edge.
Gutter: a channeled component installed along the downslope perimeter of a roof to convey runoff water from the roof to the drain leaders or downspouts.
Heat Welding: method of melting and fusing together the overlapping edges of separate sheets or sections of polymer modified bitumen, thermoplastics or some uncured thermoset roofing membranes by the application of heat (in the form of hot air or open flame) and pressure.
Hem: the edge created by folding metal back on itself.
Hoist: a mechanical lifting device.
HVAC: heating, ventilating, and air conditioning equipment.
Infrared Thermography: a practice of roof system analysis where an infrared camera is used to measure the temperature differential of a roof surface to locate areas of underlying wet or moist insulation.
Joist: any of the small timbers, metal or wood beams arranged parallel from wall to wall to support a floor, ceiling, or roof of a building.
Lap: that part of a roofing, waterproofing, or flashing component that overlaps or covers any portion of the same or another type of adjacent component.
Lap Cement: an asphalt-based roof cement formulated to adhere overlapping plies or asphalt roll roofing.
Lap Seam: occurs where overlapping materials are seamed, sealed, or otherwise bonded.
Loose-laid Membranes: membranes that are not attached to the substrate except at the perimeter of the roof and at penetrations. Typically, loose-laid membranes are held in place with ballast, such as water-worn stone, gravel, pavers, etc.
Mechanically-Fastened Membranes: generally used to describe membranes that have been attached at defined intervals to the substrate. Mechanical fastening may be performed with various fasteners and/or other mechanical devices, such as plates or battens.
Membrane: a flexible or semi-flexible material, which functions as the waterproofing component in a roofing or waterproofing assembly, and whose primary function is the exclusion of water.
Metal Flashing: accessory components fabricated from sheet metal and used to weatherproof terminating roof covering edges. Frequently used as through-wall flashing, cap flashing (coping), counterflashing, step flashing, etc. (See Flashing.)
Mopping: the application of hot bitumen, with a roofer’s hand mop or mechanical applicator, to the substrate or to the felts of a bituminous membrane.
Solid Mopping: a continuous mopping of a surface.
Spot Mopping: a mopping pattern in which hot bitumen is applied in roughly circular areas, leaving a grid of unmopped, perpendicular bands on the roof.
Sprinkle Mopping: a random mopping pattern in which heated bitumen beads are strewn onto the substrate with a brush or mop.
Strip Mopping: a mopping pattern in which hot bitumen is applied in parallel bands.
Neoprene: a synthetic rubber (polychloroprene) used in liquid-applied and sheet-applied elastomeric roof membranes or flashings.
Organic Felt: an asphalt roofing base material manufactured from cellulose fibers.
Pallet: a platform (typically wooden) used for storing and shipping materials.
Pan: the bottom flat part of a roofing panel which is between the ribs of the panel.
Parapet Wall: that part of a perimeter wall immediately adjacent to the roof which extends above the roof.
Penetration: (1) any object passing through the roof; (2) the consistency (hardness) of a bituminous material expressed as the distance, in tenths of a millimeter (0.1 mm), that a standard needle penetrates vertically into a sample of material under specified conditions of loading, time, and temperature.
Plastic Cement: a roofing industry generic term used to describe Type I asphalt roof cement that is a trowelable mixture of solvent-based bitumen, mineral stabilizers, other fibers and/or fillers. Generally, intended for use on relatively low slopes — not vertical surfaces.
Pliability: the material property of being flexible or moldable.
Ply: a layer of felt, ply sheet, or reinforcement in a roof membrane or roof system.
PMR: Protected Membrane Roof.
Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC): a synthetic thermoplastic polymer prepared from vinylchloride. PVC can be compounded into flexible and rigid forms through the use of plasticizers, stabilizers, fillers, and other modifiers; rigid forms are used in pipes; flexible forms are used in the manufacture of sheeting and roof membrane materials.
Ponding: the excessive accumulation of water at low-lying areas on a roof.
Positive Drainage: the drainage condition in which consideration has been made during design for all loading deflections of the deck, and additional roof slope has been provided to ensure drainage of the roof area within 48 hours of rainfall, during ambient drying conditions.
Primer: (1) a thin, liquid-applied solvent-based bitumen that may be applied to a surface to improve the adhesion of subsequent applications of bitumen; (2) a material which is sometimes used in the process of seaming single-ply membranes to prepare the surfaces and increase the strength (in shear and peel) of the field splice.
Rafter: one of a series of sloped structural members, that extend from the ridge or hip to the downslope perimeter or eave, designed to support the roof deck and its associated loads
Reinforced Membrane: a roofing or waterproofing membrane that has been strengthened by the addition or incorporation of one or more reinforcing materials, including woven or nonwoven glass fibers, polyester mats or scrims, nylon, or polyethylene sheeting.
Ridge: highest point on the roof, represented by a horizontal line where two roof areas intersect, running the length of the area.
Ridge Cap: a material or covering applied over the ridge of a roof.
Ridge Vent: a ventilator located at the ridge that allows the escape of warm and/or moist air from the attic area or rafter cavity. Most ridge vents are either premanufactured metal or flexible, shingle-over type.
Roll Roofing: smooth-surfaced or mineral-surfaced, coated, prepared felts.
Roof Assembly: an assembly of interacting roof components (includes the roof deck, vapor retarder [if present], insulation, and roof covering).
Sag: undesirable excessive flow in material after application to a surface.
Seam Strength: the force or stress required to separate or rupture a seam in the membrane material.
Self-Adhering Membrane: a membrane that can adhere to a substrate and to itself at overlaps without the use of an additional adhesive. The undersurface of a self-adhering membrane is protected by a release paper or film, which prevents the membrane from bonding to itself during shipping and handling.
Self-Drilling Screw: a fastener that drills and taps its own hole during application.
Self-Tapping Screw: a fastener that forms receiving threads when turned into a previously drilled hole.
Side Lap: the continuous longitudinal overlap of neighboring like materials.
Snow Guard: a series of devices attached to the roof in a pattern that attempts to hold snow in place, thus preventing sudden snow or ice slides from the roof.
Square: 100 square feet (9.29 m 2 ) of roof area.
Stainless Steel: an alloy of steel that contains a high percentage of chromium. Also may contain nickel or copper. Generally, has very good resistance to corrosion.
Starter Sheets: (1) felt, ply sheet, or membrane strips that are made or cut to widths narrower than the standard width of the roll, used to start the shingling pattern at an edge of the roof; (2) particular width sheets designed for perimeters in some mechanically attached and fully adhered single-ply systems.
Starter Strip: roll roofing or shingle strips applied along the downslope eave line, before application of the first course of roofing, intended to fill spaces between cutouts and joints of the first course.
Substrate: the surface upon which the roofing or waterproofing membrane is applied (e.g., in roofing, the structural deck or insulation).
Tie-Off: (in roofing and waterproofing) the transitional seal used to terminate a roofing or waterproofing application at the top or bottom of flashings, or by forming a watertight seal with the substrate, membrane or adjacent roofing or waterproofing system.
Underlayment: an asphalt-saturated felt or other sheet material (may be self-adhering) installed between the roof deck and the roof system, usually used in a steep-slope roof construction. Underlayment is primarily used to separate the roof covering from the roof deck, to shed water, and to provide secondary weather protection for the roof area of the building.
Vapor Barrier/ Retarder: material installed to impede or restrict the passage of water vapor through a roof assembly.
Vent: an opening designed to convey air, heat, water vapor or other gas from inside a building or a building component to the atmosphere.
Wind Uplift: the force caused by the deflection of wind at roof edges, roof peaks or obstructions, causing a drop in air pressure immediately above the roof surface. This force is then transmitted to the roof surface. Uplift may also occur because of the introduction of air pressure underneath the membrane and roof edges, where it can cause the membrane to balloon and pull away from the deck.
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Rauth Roofing Limited
7830 McHugh St.
P – 519-945-6301
F – 519-945-6311